本页使用了标题或全文手工转换

货币主义

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳到导航 跳到搜索

貨幣主義(英語:Monetarism),又稱重貨幣學派貨幣學派,是1960年代形成的經濟學流派,以挑战凱恩斯主义的面貌出现。其領袖人物為米爾頓·傅利曼,他在1976年10月獲得諾貝爾經濟學獎。货币经济学认为货币的供應量在短期内对国家的产出、在较长期上的物價水準有巨大的影响。这种货币政策的目标是透过增加货币的供应量来实行。

貨幣主義的核心命题是:在經濟活動中,貨幣扮演着最重要的角色,通货膨胀的原因就是發行過多货币。政府的角色是透過中央銀行,調控在經濟體中流通的貨幣數量,除此之外,不需要干預經濟活動。

理論[编辑]

貨幣主義源起於米爾頓·傅利曼安娜·施瓦茨合著的《美國貨幣史英语A Monetary History of the United States》,并指出“通货膨胀永远是无处不在的货币现象。”他批评美国政府当时採用的凱因斯主義約翰·梅納德·凱因斯基于政府干预的理论。他长期批评美國聯邦準備理事會在货币政策,认为美联储的货币紧缩政策是大萧条的主要原因,而發行過多货币造成了70年代的通貨膨胀。弗里德曼贊成中央银行透过统计國家生产力的狀況和需求,来訂定讓货币供需平衡的货币政策。

米爾頓·傅利曼認為:「通貨膨脹在任何時間、任何地點都是因为發行過多貨幣。」所谓“结构性通胀”、“输入型通胀”都是无稽之谈。中央銀行的貨幣发行过多则造成通货膨胀,过少則造成通货紧缩。貨幣主義認為,在短期,貨幣供給的變動雖然能夠影響實際經濟狀況,例如就業;但在長期,它能影響到的只有通貨膨脹。主张货币发行量的成長率要保持一个固定的速度,让经济中的个体通货膨胀有完全的预期能力,这种货币机制被称为弗里德曼规则

歷史[编辑]

貨幣主義在提出之初並不受重視,直到柴契爾夫人在英國採用貨幣主義政策,使英國經濟成功復甦,貨幣主義政策開始受到各國重視,使得各國中央銀行政策逐漸偏向貨幣主義,取代凱恩斯主義的地位。

延伸阅读[编辑]

  • Andersen, Leonall C., and Jerry L. Jordan, 1968. "Monetary and Fiscal Actions: A Test of Their Relative Importance in Economic Stabilisation", Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review (November), pp. 11–24. PDF (30 sec. load: press +) and HTML.
  • _____, 1969. "Monetary and Fiscal Actions: A Test of Their Relative Importance in Economic Stabilisation — Reply", Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review (April), pp. 12–16. PDF (15 sec. load; press +) and HTML.
  • Brunner, Karl, and Allan H. Meltzer, 1993. Money and the Economy: Issues in Monetary Analysis, Cambridge. Description and chapter previews, pp. ixx.
  • Cagan, Phillip, 1965. Determinants and Effects of Changes in the Stock of Money, 1875–1960. NBER. Foreword by Milton Friedman, pp. xiii–xxviii. Table of Contents.
  • Friedman, Milton, ed. 1956. Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money, Chicago. Chapter 1 is previewed at Friedman, 2005, ch. 2 link.
  • _____, 1960. A Program for Monetary Stability. Fordham University Press.
  • _____, 1968. "The Role of Monetary Policy", American Economic Review, 58(1), pp. 1–17 页面存档备份,存于互联网档案馆 (press +).
  • _____, [1969] 2005. The Optimum Quantity of Money. Description and table of contents, with previews of 3 chapters.
  • Friedman, Milton, and David Meiselman, 1963. "The Relative Stability of Monetary Velocity and the Investment Multiplier in the United States, 1897–1958", in Stabilization Policies, pp. 165–268. Prentice-Hall/Commission on Money and Credit, 1963.
  • Friedman, Milton, and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, 1963a. "Money and Business Cycles", Review of Economics and Statistics, 45(1), Part 2, Supplement, p. p. 32–64. Reprinted in Schwartz, 1987, Money in Historical Perspective, ch. 2.
  • _____. 1963b. A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960. Princeton. Page-searchable links to chapters on 1929-41 and 1948–60
  • Johnson, Harry G., 1971. "The Keynesian Revolutions and the Monetarist Counter-Revolution", American Economic Review, 61(2), p. p. 1–14. Reprinted in John Cunningham Wood and Ronald N. Woods, ed., 1990, Milton Friedman: Critical Assessments, v. 2, p. p. 72 88. Routledge,
  • Laidler, David E.W., 1993. The Demand for Money: Theories, Evidence, and Problems, 4th ed. Description.
  • Schwartz, Anna J., 1987. Money in Historical Perspective, University of Chicago Press. Description and Chapter-preview links, pp. vii-viii.
  • Warburton, Clark, 1966. Depression, Inflation, and Monetary Policy; Selected Papers, 1945–1953 Johns Hopkins Press. Amazon Summary in Anna J. Schwartz, Money in Historical Perspective, 1987.

参见[编辑]